Create an annotated bibliography of at least six peer-reviewed journal articles including both research studies on your topic and articles about how to use selected research methods.

Mixing qualitative and quantitative research methods is not a haphazard process. To produce a valid, reliable, and trustworthy research study, it is necessary for the researcher(s) to master both kinds of methods (Abbas Tashakkori, personal communication, April, 2010). The quantitative part of the study must be based on a positivist or postpositivist worldview or paradigm, start with a clear and narrowly defined hypothesis, use valid and reliable instruments for data collection, and use statistical techniques appropriate for the measurement scales of the data and representativeness of the sample in order to test the hypothesis. The qualitative part requires a paradigm or worldview other than positivism (for example, postpositivism, interpretivism, constructivism, critical theory, pragmatism, etc.), recognition of the researcher’s assumptions and viewpoint which are likely to be different than those of the participants, close personal contact with participants, the use of open-ended questions that encourage participants to answer at length and in their own words, and a very involved, labor-intensive data analysis process. The value of each part must be judged by the set of standards governing the particular methodology.
Although widely accepted today, mixed methods approaches were controversial during the period sometimes referred to as “the paradigm wars.” Researchers tended to be firmly in one camp (qualitative or quantitative) and liked to disparage the research of those in the other camp. Both qualitative and quantitative research specialists questioned whether the widely different worldviews of the two approaches could ever be compatible.
How can someone value and operate under two or more different paradigms (worldviews) at the same time? Since most researchers tend to have a strong affinity for one type of research methodology or the other, mixed methods studies are usually done by teams of researchers whose members have differing areas of research expertise and operate under different paradigms. By working together, they can cover all the needs of the research study. Table 1.4 in Creswell and Creswell (2018) shows how the philosophical assumptions (worldview or paradigm), strategies of inquiry, methods, and practices of researchers align to produce a coherent research design. You may find this information helpful in positioning yourself as a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods researcher and in determining how each paradigm would handle the mixing of methods.
A mixed methods approach is not appropriate for every research study, but there are situations in which a study can benefit from the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. Hesse-Biber (2010) describes five reasons for using mixed methods which were originally proposed by Greene, Caracelli, and Graham (1989, cited in Hesse-Biber, 2010): triangulation, complementarity, development, initiation, and expansion. If one of these needs applies to a research question, then a mixed methods design is called for. Triangulation involves confirming results by using different data sources for the same research question. Complementarity refers to using different methods to clarify results or to get a more full understanding of a problem. Development has to do with synergy, which is achieving more by a combination of methods than can be accomplished by using the two methods separately. Initiation is the intent to clarify contradictions found previously or to seek answers to unanswered questions that came up in an earlier study. Expansion is the extension of a research topic into a wider and deeper field of investigation.
Hesse-Biber (2010) points out some reasons for not using mixed methods in a particular study. If the research question can be answered by the use of one method, it is unnecessary and could be a waste of resources to use additional methods. Using additional methods may lead to inaccurate results and possibly detrimental consequences, especially if the researcher carrying out the study does not have sufficient skill in all of the methods involved.
When it is determined that the best approach to a research problem is to use mixed methods, several issues have to be considered (Bryman, 2006). Will qualitative and quantitative data be collected at the same time (concurrent), or will one type be collected first and the other later (sequential)? Will the quantitative aspect of the study be considered the most important with the qualitative aspect lending support, or will it be the other way around? Is the goal of combining the methods triangulation, explanation, or exploration? The stages at which the two methods will be combined must be determined – “research question formulation, data collection, data analysis, or data interpretation” (Bryman, 2006, p. 98). Hesse-Biber (2010) underscores the importance of considering theory/methodology in decisions about mixed methods research design, and not just choosing methods or techniques. There are paradigm issues (such as ontology and epistemology) underlying the different approaches that have to be reconciled if they are to co-exist in the same study. Deciding these issues will lead to the selection of a specific research design.
The field of mixed methods research is continuing to develop and new designs are being introduced, so the ones covered in the cited sources are not all of the possibilities. Additional information about mixed methods research issues and designs can be found in reference books such as those by Creswell and Plano Clark (2011), Tashakkori and Teddlie (2010), and Teddlie and Tashakkori (2009).

READ the mixed methods section of Chapter 7 and all of Chapter 10 in the Creswell and Creswell text and Chapter 2: Formulating Questions, Conducting a Literature Review, Sampling Design, (LINK WILL PROVIDED)
READ and the Centrality of Ethics in Mixed Methods Research of the Hesse-Biber ebook. (PDF ATTATCHED)
Begin your assignment by briefly describing the topic you selected in Week 1.(PDF ATTACHED) Narrow your topic down to a precise focus. Apply the scientific method by developing a specific research question. Determine which approach (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) is called for by the wording of the question. If a quantitative or mixed methods approach will be used, also formulate a testable hypothesis that addresses the research question. Identify the philosophical paradigm or worldview that underlies your research approach.
The second part of the assignment is the annotated bibliography. Refer to the Writing Center’s Annotated Bibliography resource for formatting details, a sample, and an optional template. Your bibliography must contain peer-reviewed journal articles, including one literature review article on your topic, at least one quantitative research study on your topic, at least one qualitative study on your topic, one mixed methods study relevant to your topic (if available), and at least two articles about the research design and methods you would use. These sources should be obtained from the UAGC Library. Refer to the Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources
and the Library OneSearch tip sheets for help in finding appropriate sources Google Scholar may be used, but only if the articles are available in full text at no cost. For assistance researching on this platform, refer to the Library’s Google Scholar tip sheet. A minimum of six peer-reviewed journal articles are required for the assignment.
Write two paragraphs about each source in the bibliography. In the first paragraph, summarize the main points of the article in your own words. In the second paragraph, explain how this article can be used in your final research proposal. For instance, research studies will be included in the Literature Review section of the proposal; articles about methods will be used to support your research plans in the Methods section of the proposal. You may cite the course text, but it does not count as one of the six required bibliography sources.
In your paper,
Describe your narrowly defined research topic.
Develop a specific research question. If the research will have a quantitative component, also develop a testable hypothesis.
Determine which approach (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) best aligns with the research question.
Identify the philosophical paradigm underlying the research approach.
Create an annotated bibliography of at least six peer-reviewed journal articles including both research studies on your topic and articles about how to use selected research methods.
Sources for the bibliography must include the following:
one literature review article on your topic
at least one quantitative research study on your topic
at least one qualitative research study on your topic
one mixed methods study relevant to your topic (if available)
at least two articles about the research design and methods you would use
Summarize the main points of the sources in one paragraph for each article
Explain how the articles will be used to inform and support your final research proposal with one paragraph per article.

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