Explain how you would protect against the threat to internal validity outlined in each scenario.

For assignment # 8, students will provide short-answer
responses that address the questions below. Similar to the online exercises,
students will be expected to apply the core concepts covered in chapters 5, 6, & 7 and to
appropriately identify examples of these concepts. Once you have answered all
of these questions, please log into the Test link that has been provided in the
folder for this week’s assignment. For each of the questions below, there will
be an open area for you to type in your responses. Since there are multiple
examples associated with certain questions, please make sure to number your
responses in accordance with the example to which you are responding (i.e., if
you are responding to example 1, put a 1 before your response). There will be
no time limit associated with the test link, so feel free to log in multiple
times throughout the week (make sure to save each of your answers before
logging off). This assignment will be due by Midnight on Sunday, March 24th.

1. For the following scenarios, identify the sampling
strategy used in each example. After identifying the sampling strategy, provide
one sentence that supports your selection.

A professor is interested in examining offender
decision-making both before and during the commission of a robbery. Based on
the need to interview active offenders, the professor decides that he would
like to focus on offenders who are not currently incarcerated and those who had
committed a robbery in the last 3 months. Since no master list of robbers is
available, the professor decides to use an informant to help him reach out to
active robbers. After the completion of the first interview, the professor asks
the participant if they could refer him to other offenders that meet his
criteria for inclusion in the study.
An upper-level supervisor within the Missouri Division
of Probation and Parole is interested in gauging the level of employee
satisfaction with their jobs among line officers. In order address this
question, the supervisor generates a list of all officers currently employed in
the division and then he divides this list based on whether the employee is a
probation or a parole officer. Finally, the supervisor takes a random sample
from each group based on their overall presence in the line officer population.
The president of the American Society of Criminology
(ASC) wants to determine whether current ASC members enjoyed the annual
conference in Atlanta. In order to address this topic, the president decides to
gather a list of all ASC members who attended the conference and then he
selects a random sample of members for participation using a random number
A college student is interested in gauging the level
of support for the death penalty among undergraduates on her campus. After
creating a short 10 question survey, the student distributes paper copies of
the survey over a one week period to undergraduates who frequented the Student
The warden of Tipton Correctional Facility would like
to determine how safe correctional staff feel when working within the facility.
In order to address this topic, the warden decides he would like to take a
random sample of employees and he begins by gathering a list of all
correctional staff currently employed in the facility. Next, the warden decides
he would like separate employees by whether they work in the low, medium, and
high security wings of the facility. After separating the staff into these
categories, the warden decides he would like to oversample staff assigned to
the high security wing due to the high-risk nature of their work.
An MSU administrator is interested in determining the
level of satisfaction with Blackboard among undergraduates at the university.
To ensure a representative sample, the administrator decides to randomly select
every 10th undergraduate student from the school’s master list
A criminologist would like to determine whether
prosecutors in the state of Missouri consider the local political climate when
making sentencing recommendations to judges. First, the criminologist decides
to create a list of all cities within the state of Missouri and then he decides
to sort the cities into five categories based on their population size. Next,
the criminologist decides to randomly select 10 cities from each of the 5
population categories to ensure equal representation among the categories. Finally,
the criminologist creates a list of all prosecutors within each city and then
he randomly selects 3 prosecutors from every city list.
A student is interested in gauging whether
undergraduates at Drury are satisfied with the variety of services offered on
campus. In order to examine this topic, the student creates a matrix that
outlines the demographic characteristics of the overall undergraduate
population at Drury. The student then proceeds to interview undergraduates on
the Drury campus in proportion to the characteristics outlined in the matrix.
A researcher would like to determine whether residents
feel safer when police officers embrace a community-based deployment strategy.
The researcher knows that the local police currently use this strategy when
patrolling his neighborhood, so he decides to distribute his survey to
residents who live within his neighborhood.
10. The superintendent
for Missouri schools is interested in gauging whether high-school students are
satisfied with the educational resources offered within their schools. In order
to generate a random sample of high-school students, the superintendent first
gathers a list of all counties within the state of Missouri and then she
randomly selects 10 counties from this list. Next, the superintendent creates a
list of all high-school within each of the 10 counties, and based off this
list, she randomly selects 2 high-schools from each county. Finally, the superintendent
creates a list of all high-school students within each school and she randomly
selects 25 students from every school.

For the following
examples, identify the survey distribution strategy that you think would best
address the scenario (i.e., mail-surveys, on-line surveys, in-person interview
surveys, or telephone surveys). If you select in-person surveys, make sure to
specify which question delivery method you would use (i.e., standard interview
survey, computer assisted self-interviewing, general interview guide,
standardized open-ended interview guide, or a focus group). After identifying
the best distribution and delivery method, provide a 2-4 sentence justification
for your selection. When justifying your answer, you will want to consider a
number of factors, such as the breadth of coverage, cost, response rates,
available manpower, the sensitivity of the questions being asked, and potential
literacy issues.

political scientist is interested in determining the level of support for
President Biden among United States citizens. In order to obtain a
representative sample, the political scientist has decided that he would like
to reach out to 5,000 individuals living in all 50 states in the US. Due to
budget cutbacks, the political scientist only has one graduate student to
assist him in distributing the questionnaire.
criminologist is interested in studying the long-term psychological
consequences associated with experiencing violent victimization as a child. In
an effort to address this research question, the criminologist has decided she
would like to reach out to 150 college students to see if they had been
victimized and to determine the negative psychological consequences associated
with being victimized. Since the criminologist has received a grant from the
National Institute of Justice to conduct her study, she will be able to hire 10
graduate students to help her with gathering this information and she is hoping
to produce the highest possible response rates.
researcher is interested in gauging the level of support among Springfield
parole officers for a new prisoner reentry program. Since the researcher is
unsure of how the parole officers will feel about the program, she wants to
adopt a method that will allow for a certain amount of flexibility in the
questions posed, as well as allow the officers to respond to the questions
using their own words.
sociologist is interested in determining the challenges that immigrants face
after their arrival in the United States. After consulting with an informant
who is knowledgeable about the local immigrant population, the sociologist has
identified 25 individuals who have immigrated to the US in the last year. Due
to the relatively small sample size, the sociologist is hoping to produce high
response rates.
State University is interested in soliciting feedback from students regarding
their new user interface on the school’s main webpage. Ideally, the school
would like to reach as many undergraduates as possible, but obtaining a
representative sample of the student population and a high response rate is not
a major concern.

For the following
examples, identify the threat to internal validity. After identifying the applicable
threat to internal validity, provide 1-2 sentences that explain your selection.
Finally, explain how you would protect against the threat to internal validity
outlined in each scenario.

A police district in Springfield has been selected as a
site for a new foot patrol deployment strategy due to the exceptionally high
number of citizen complaints that were filed in that district last month. One
month after the deployment of the new foot patrol strategy, the number of
complaints decreased back down to the normal range.
You are interested in examining whether a new anger
management course within correctional institutions has an impact on the number
of violations incurred by inmates. Your experimental group consists of all
low-risk prisoners and the inmates in your comparison group have all had ten or
more infractions during their incarceration. After completion of the new class,
you find that your experimental group had significantly fewer institutional
violations in contrast to your comparison group.
A researcher is interested in determining whether an 8
week self-defense program has an impact on college students’ fear of being the
victim of a crime. The researcher decided at the beginning of the program to
distribute the pretest online using Blackboard. During the 4th week
of the program, the researcher found out that due to technical difficulties,
the students responses on the pretest were not saved on Blackboard. Instead of
waiting to determine the effectiveness of the program using a new group of
students, the researcher decides to distribute a paper and pencil version of
the pretest to students in the 4th week of the program. In order to
determine the effectiveness of the program, the researcher will examine the
changes in scores from the “pretest” to the posttest.
I have developed a new sex education course that is
designed to decrease risky sexual behavior among high school students. In order
to determine students’ monthly sexual activity before participation in the
class, I distribute a pretest survey to participants. After conducting the
pretest, I distribute literature about sexually transmitted diseases and
teenage pregnancy to participants, and I find that after 6 months, students who
participated in the study reported significantly less sexual activity. Just
before I conducted my posttest, I found out that a 16-year-old girl in the same
high school had just given birth to a child.
A sociologist is interested in assessing the impact of
a new smoking cessation program. After administering the program to the
experimental group, the sociologist found that the percentage of individuals
who reported having quit smoking in the posttest was much higher for the
experimental group than it was for the control group who received nothing.
However, only 60% of the individuals who began the program in the experimental
group actually completed the program.
A researcher hypothesizes that attendance at annual
meetings that focus on the causes and consequences of alcoholism should have an
impact on reported instances of binge drinking. In order to determine the
cumulative effect of these meetings, the researcher decides to follow subjects from
their freshman year of college until their 28th birthday. After the
first 4 to 5 years, the researcher found that reported instances of binge
drinking decreased substantially among participants.
You are a police chief in charge of
setting up a program designed to reduce homicides in St. Louis. The month
before you implemented your program, St. Louis experienced abnormally high
homicide rates. After the initiation of the program, homicide rates returned to
levels relative to those experienced before the previous month’s high levels.
A sociologist is interested in determining whether a
new intensive self-reflection class is effective at improving
self-conceptualizations among college students who suffer from depression. In
order to determine whether the class is successful, the sociologist gives participants
a pretest to gauge their levels of depression. Over the course of the class, participants
developed a close attachment with the sociologist and know that she has spent a
significant amount of time researching and developing the course. In an effort
to provide favorable results, the participants intentionally answer questions
in the posttest in a favorable manner based off of their knowledge of the
questions in the pretest.
A criminologist is interested in determining whether
random drug testing reduces the number of dirty urinalysis (UAs) tests among parolees.
In order to answer this question, the criminologist gathers all of the parolee
case files for the month of January in Springfield, which pre-dates the
inception of the random drug testing program. Three months after the program
was implemented, the criminologist gathers all of the files for parolees for
the month of April, and he discovers that the number of dirty UAs has decreased
since January. The criminologist also finds out that the Springfield parole
office had decided to increase the threshold necessary for a parolee to test
positive for drug usage at the beginning of March.
10. The principal
investigator on the GREAT program is interested in assessing whether an
in-school program overseen by police officers has an impact on youths’
willingness to join a gang. In order to answer this question, the investigator
randomly assigns middle-school students to an experimental group which receives
the treatment program and assigns the remainder of the students to a control
group that does not receive the treatment. Over the course of the evaluation,
the investigator finds out that the most delinquent students ended up dropping
out of the experimental group.

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