Explain the general type of scientific procedure you used to study the problem.

Header (use only on the first page of your lab report)
All lab reports should begin with your name(s), your class and course section, the date, the experiment title, and the last name of your professor or lab supervisor. This needs to go on a cover sheet as the first page of your report.

Abstract (single spaced)
The abstract is a one or two paragraph concise that is single spaced. It is a detailed summary of the report. It should contain these four elements:
• What the objectives of the study were (the central question);
• Brief statement of what was done (Methods);
• Brief statement of what was found (Results);
• Brief statement of what was concluded (Discussion).

While you need to finish the lab report to write the abstract, in the final lab report, put it in the first section.

Introduction
This section tells the reader why you did the experiment, including background information that may suggest why the topic is of interest and other related findings. I should contain 3-5 paragraphs and occupy about 1 page. It should contain the following:
• Descriptions of the nature of the problem and summaries of relevant research (use APA format to mention the two articles in your text) to provide context and key terms so your reader can understand the experiment.
• A statement of the purpose, scope, and general method of investigation in your study. Express the central question you are asking.
• Descriptions of your experiment(s), hypothesis(es), research questions. Explain what you are proposing for certain observations.

Experiment (Materials and Methods)
This section should describe all experimental procedures in enough detail so that someone else could repeat the experiment. IT is NOT a list and must be in paragraph form. It is a summary not a word by word repeat of the procedure. Some guidelines to follow:
• Explain the general type of scientific procedure you used to study the problem. Cite your online textbook.
• Describe what materials, subjects, and equipment you used (Materials).
• Explain the steps you took in your experiment in a logical order (Methods).
• Mathematical equations and statistical tests should not just be included, but it is best if you describe how they function in the experiment at that point in the method.

While bullets are insufficient, this section is a brief summary, don’t put excessive detail here.

Results
The results section should present data that you collected from your experiment and summarize the data with text, tables, photos, and/or figures. Effective results sections include:
• All results, including those that do not support the hypothesis.
• Statements made in this section or elsewhere in the report must be supported by the results contained in figures and tables.

Discussion
The discussion section should give a detailed account of what happened in the experiment and explain to the reader the significance of the results. Evaluate what happened, based on the hypothesis and purpose of the experiment. State whether or not your results confirmed or denied the hypothesis. If the results contained errors, analyze the reasons for the errors. The discussion should contain: 3
• A Summary of the important findings of your observations.
• For each result, descriptions of the patterns, principles, relationships your results show. Explain how your results relate to expectations and to references cited (in introduction above). Explain any agreements, contradictions, or exceptions. Describe what (if any) additional research might resolve contradictions or explain exceptions.


• Suggestions concerning the theoretical implications of your results. Extend your findings to other situations or other species. Give the big picture: Do your findings help us understand a broader topic?

Conclusion
A brief summary of what was done, how, the results and your conclusions of the experiment. (For a detailed explanation, see the information under Abstract.) This section should be no more than a paragraph of 5-6 sentences.
References
A listing of published works you cited in the text of your paper listed by alphabetically by author according to APA format guidelines. For online help see the Library.

DATASHEET for LAB: Energy Content in
Food Due by MIDNIGHT 2/16 (in ASSIGNMENTS on Canvas)
: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tmiq7bdtti8 : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qEEAU-VACcw
Information on Fats, Carbohydrates and Proteins in Nutrition Facts

Information Sheet: What Where and How of Calorimetry
Use the Data from the Videos to Solve for Energy of Peanut #1, Marshmallow #2 and Cheeto #3
Sample
#1Peanut
Sample#2
Marshmallow
Sample#3
Cheeto:

Data Table and Calculations
Peanut Sample #1
1. Mass of Peanut & Holder Before Burning Mass of Peanut & Holder After Burning Mass of Peanut Burned
2. Mass or Calorimeter (can) & Water Mass or Calorimeter
Mass of Water
3. Temperature of Water After Burning Temperature of Water Before Burning Change in Temperature of Water
______10.0g________ ______9.7g_________ ______0.3g_________
_____82.3g_________ _____30.8g________ _____51.5g________ _____39.8 Celsius____
_____21.2 Celsius____ _____18.6 Celsius_____
Calculation: [Water has a specific heat capacity of 4.186 J/g°C, meaning that it requires 4.186 J of energy (1 calorie) to heat a gram by one degree. is the change in temperature of the system.]
Heat = (Mass of water) X SH of water (4.18 J/G oC) X Change in T = 51.5g x 4.18 J/G oC x 18.6oC
= 4004.022 Joules = 4.00 kJ

Energy = = =
Heat / mass of burned food 4.00kJ/ 0.3g
13.33 kJ / gram
Marshmallow Sample #2
1. Mass of Marshmallow & Holder Before Burning Mass of Marshmallow & Holder After Burning Mass of Marshmallow Burned
______6.89g_______ ______6.13g________
______0.76g________ ________50mL______
2. Mass or Calorimeter (can) & Water Mass or Calorimeter
Mass of Water
3. Temperature of Water After Burning Temperature of Water Before Burning Change in Temperature of Water
___________________ ______50g__________
______33 oC _________ ______22 oC _________ _______11 oC ________
Calculation: [Water has a specific heat capacity of 4.186 J/g°C, meaning that it requires 4.186 J of energy (1 calorie) to heat a gram by one degree. is the change in temperature of the system.]
Heat = (Mass of water) X SH of water (4.18 J/G oC) X Change in T
=
Energy = = =
2299 Joules = 2.299 kJ
Heat / mass of burned food 2.299 kJ/ 0.76g
3.03 kJ/ gram
= 50g x 4.18 J/G oC
x 11oC
Cheeto – Sample #3
1. Mass of Cheeto before Burning______1.670g________

Mass of Cheeto After Burning
Mass of Cheeto Burned
2. Mass of Water
3. Temperature of Water After Burning
Temperature of Water Before Burning Change in Temperature of Water
_____.190g__________ _____1.48g__________
Calculation: [Water has a specific heat capacity of 1.00 cal/ g°C, meaning that it requires I calorie of energy to heat a gram by one degree. is the change in temperature of the system.]
Heat = (Mass of water) X SH of water (4.18 J/G oC) X Change in T
_100 mL or 100 grams_x__ ______43.6 oC _________
______22.9 oC _________ _____ 20.7 oC __________
= =
Energy = = =
100g x 4.18 J/G oC x 20.7oC 8652.6 Joules = 8.65 kJ
Heat / mass of burned food 8.65 kJ/ 1.48g
5.84 kJ/ gram

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